The inhabitants of Indus civilisation also tried to standardise measurement of length to a high degree of accuracy.They designed a ruler—the Mohenjo-daro ruler—whose unit of length (approximately 1.32 inches or 3.4 centimetres) was divided into ten equal parts.

Bricks manufactured in ancient Mohenjo-daro often had dimensions that were integral multiples of this unit of length.

Hollow cylindrical objects made of shell and found at Lothal (2200 BCE) and Dholavira are demonstrated to have the ability to measure angles in a plane, as well as to determine the position of stars for navigation.

The altars were required to be constructed of five layers of burnt brick, with the further condition that each layer consist of 200 bricks and that no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks. 363), the Śulba Sūtras contain "the earliest extant verbal expression of the Pythagorean Theorem in the world, although it had already been known to the Old Babylonians." Since the statement is a sūtra, it is necessarily compressed and what the ropes produce is not elaborated on, but the context clearly implies the square areas constructed on their lengths, and would have been explained so by the teacher to the student. Dani, the Babylonian cuneiform tablet Plimpton 322 written ca.

It also contains the general statement of the Pythagorean theorem (for the sides of a rectangle): "The rope stretched along the length of the diagonal of a rectangle makes an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together." which expresses √2 in the sexagesimal system, and which is also accurate up to 5 decimal places (after rounding). 1850 BCE indicating, in particular, that there was sophisticated understanding on the topic" in Mesopotamia in 1850 BCE.

In the fourth line put 1 in the two squares at the ends.

In the middle ones put the sum of the digits in the two squares above each. Of these lines, the second gives the combinations with one syllable, the third the combinations with two syllables, ... 3rd century BCE) is notable for being the last of the Vedic mathematicians.

600 BCE), contained results similar to the Baudhayana Sulba Sutra.

An important landmark of the Vedic period was the work of Sanskrit grammarian, Pāṇini (c. His grammar includes early use of Boolean logic, of the null operator, and of context free grammars, and includes a precursor of the Backus–Naur form (used in the description programming languages).

They used a standardised system of weights based on the ratios: 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500, with the unit weight equaling approximately 28 grams (and approximately equal to the English ounce or Greek uncia).

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